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About cataract

How does it develop?


Basically cataract develops when protein buildups in the lens of eye thereby causing opaqueness of clear lens surface which prevents the light from passing through the lens properly and hence leading to reduced vision. This clouding increases with age because of the protein clump formation in eyes and as such the vision further gets worsened.

What are the risk factors of having cataract?


Different risk factors relating to cataract include ageing process which promotes the chances of having cataract. Secondly, patients who are having diabetes are also at risk of having cataract. Glaucoma, eye inflammation, eye injury are also some of the reasons which can result into cataract. Some patients are judged to have cataract due to family history and some of them are having it by birth also. In addition to this, in certain cases a long exposure to UV rays of sun, may also lead to cataract. Similarly a very long exposure to radiation may cause cataract. Further, reasons like surgery for any other eye disease or problem may lead to cataract.

What are the Symptoms of cataract?


Ne major symptom of cataract is decreased vision, which is not corrected by wearing glasses. A person might have photophobia, and therefore, he can become more sensitive towards sunlight and then a cloudy and hazy vision might also be a problem associated with cataract. He can face problem in seeing different shapes and colors and he might not be able to properly visualize also in dim light. Sensitivity of the person towards contrasting light is decreased and as a result, he might experience difficulty in differentiating between shades and colors.

How is cataract diagnosed?


It is not very difficult to diagnose cataract. It can be simply diagnosed by any ophthalmologist or an eye specialist while a routine eye checkup. In addition to this, there are various tests which are performed to clarify or to confirm presence of cataract. Visual acuity test, dilated eye exam and tonometry are three major examinations for detecting cataract. Eye specialist also checks the papillary movement and responses in order to measure pressure inside the eyes.

What are the treatments used for cataract?


People having minor cataract or whose problem has been diagnosed earlier can take help of glasses to improve their vision. In addition to this, some eye drops and medicines are also available for them which can help treat cataract. For patients who have reached an advanced stage of cataract, surgery is recommended by doctors as an effective treatment option. It is a simple operation done to replace the cloudy lens of eye with an artificial lens. This operation can help patients to gain their lost or reduced vision in a very short span of time.
What are the surgical techniques used to treat cataract?


Most common surgical technique which is in practice today is phacoemulsification. This technique involves introduction of a very small instrument inside the eye using a small cut. This instrument breaks down the cloud forming cataract into small fine pieces using ultrasound vibration and finally these small pieces are removed out. After that an intraocular lens is placed in the eye without any stitches. This method is very easy and successful in delivering improved quality vision to cataract patients and is generally referred to as the IOL surgery.